What is Computer Language
The term ‘Computer Language’ includes a large variety of languages used to communicate with computers. It is broader than the more commonly used term programming language. Programming languages are a subset of computer languages. Programming languages are the primary means by which developers of computing systems instruct a machine to organize or manipulate information or control physical devices. Most software is written using one or more programming languages.
Example : C++, Java, Basic,and Assembly languages etc.
Types of Computer Language:
Computer languages can be divided into two groups:
- Low-level languages.
- High-level languages
1. Low-Level Languages:
A language in which each statement is directly translated into a single machine code is known as low-level language. Examples of the low-level language are Machine language and Assembly language.
(a) Machine Language:
A computer understands information composed of only zeros and ones (0’s and 1’s) and hence it uses binary digits for its operation. The computer’s instructions are coded and stored in the memory in the form of 0’s and 1’s. A program written in the form of 0’s and 1’s is called machine language program.
Uses: Machine language code is used to program register and microprocessor.
(b) Assembly Language:
The writing of programs in machine language is very difficult, tiresome, boring and error-prone. To solve this problem, assembly language has been developed. Programs can easily be written in alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and 1’s. e.g., Add for addition, Sub for subtraction etc. Such symbols are known as mnemonics. A program written in mnemonics is called ‘assembly language program’.
When a program is written in a language other than the machine language of the computer, the computer will not understand it. A program which translates an assembly language program into a machine language program is called an ‘Assembler’ An assembler which runs on a computer for which it produces object codes (machine codes) is called a ‘self-assembler‘. An assembler that runs on a computer other than that for which it produces machine codes is called a ‘cross assembler‘.
Uses: Assembly language code is mainly used in computation program. The computation time of an assembly language program is less. An assembly language program runs faster to produce the desired result.
2. High-Level Language:
To overcome the difficulties associated with assembly languages, high-level language has been developed. High-level languages permit programmers to describe tasks in a form which is problem-oriented rather than computer oriented.
The instructions written in a high-level language are called ‘statement’. The statements more clearly resemble English and Mathematics as compared to mnemonics in assembly languages.
Examples of high-level languages are:
• Basic: It is an abbreviation for ‘Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code’. To translate BASIC instructions into machine language codes interpreters are frequently used in PC system.
Uses: It is a widely used language for simple computation and analysis.
• FORTRAN: It is an abbreviation for ‘Formula Translation’. It is a compact programming language It has a number of versions.
Example : FORTRAN IV, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90 and FORTRAN 95.
Uses: It is a very useful language for scientific and engineering computations as it contains many complex mathematical functions.
• COBOL: It is an abbreviation for ‘Common Business Oriented Language’. It was developed specially for business data processing.
Uses: It was used for large business and commercial applications such as handling of ledgers, accounts, payroll files etc.
• C -Language: It is a general-purpose high-level language. It is a small and concise language. C program can use modular and structured concept.
Uses: This language is used by system programmers to develop complex programs such as an operating system and application program.
• JAVA: It is an object-oriented programming language. Application programs written in JAVA can run on any platform. It is achieved using a JAVA Virtual Machine.
Uses: This language is used for Internet, Desktop Computers, Servers, and Micro